(Expense Recognition Principle) An accountant must be familiar with the concepts involved in determining earnings of a business entity. The amount of earnings reported for a business entity is dependent on the proper recognition, in general, of revenues and expenses for a given time period. In some situations, costs are recognized as expenses at the time of product sale. In other situations, guidelines have been developed for recognizing costs as expenses or losses by other criteria.
(a) Explain the rationale for recognizing costs as expenses at the time of product sale.
(b) What is the rationale underlying the appropriateness of treating costs as expenses of a period instead of assigning the costs to an asset? Explain.
(c) In what general circumstances would it be appropriate to treat a cost as an asset instead of as an expense? Explain.
(d) Some expenses are assigned to specific accounting periods on the basis of systematic and rational allocation of asset cost. Explain the underlying rationale for recognizing expenses on the basis of systematic and rational allocation of asset cost.
(e) Identify the conditions under which it would be appropriate to treat a cost as a loss.