Regulation of physiological processes experiment

Regulation of germination
Regulation of Physiological Processes Experiment (Starch-agar plates, GA, ABA, and glucose pr sucrose)
Qs are related to theGA and Amylase lab

*How does the concentration of a hormone affect the physiological response and the presence of one hormone block alter the action of another?

*Does the concentration of sugaravailable to the embryo alter the hormone response andthe embryo it self have a hormone response that is different from the endosperm?

*Does salt or other stress activate theABA repose or Ca2+ incvolved in the reponse of the seed to ABA/

Making reaction, Assume you are given a primer with a

Assume you are given a primer with a concentration of 1.4 mg/ml, RNA concentration of 0.8 mg/ml, 1M MgCl2, 10mM dNTP mix, 10x buffer, 10 units/ul of reverse transcriptase. Describe how to make the following reaction:

5mM MgCl2

1x buffer

1mM dNTP mix

10ng of primer 1

10ng of primer 2

1ug of Rna

0.25 units of reverse transcriptase

Final reaction 20ul

Solution-Problem regarding the brain size and intelligence

Brain Size and Intelligence

Background: Is brain size a measure of intelligence? Brain size tends to vary with body size: for example, sperm whales and elephants have brains up to five times as massive as human brains. So across species, brain size is not a perfect measure of intelligence. And within species, the underlying organization (complexity of connections) and molecular activity of the brain are likely to be more directly associated with intelligence than mere size.

In this assignment, we will investigate relationships between physiological measures of the brain, and intelligence. Download and open the Excel workbook, MHA610_Week 5_Assignment_Brain_Data.xls. The workbook contains data on 20 youths, in rows two through 21. Eight variables (the columns) were recorded on each individual; the column headings are given in row one. The column headings are as follows:

the individual’s IQ

the birth order (1 = firstborn, 2 = not firstborn)

marker for genotype

gender, 1 = male, 2 = female

corpus callosum surface area (in cm2)

head circumference (in cm)

total brain surface area (in cm2)

total brain volume (in cm3)

body weight (in kg)

The neuroanatomical measures CCSA, TOTSA, and TOTVOL were determined from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brains, followed by automated image analyses of the scans. The corpus callosum is a bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex, connecting the left and right cerebral hemispheres of the brain; it is the communication highway between the two hemispheres. (The more lanes to the highway, the faster the traffic ought to flow.)

The following questions can be answered in Excel, StatDisk, or other statistics software you may have available.

  • Examine all of the pairwise correlations among the physiological measures CCSA, HC, TOTSA, TOTVOL, and WEIGHT. Which two variables have the strongestcorrelation? Report the correlation, and plot the scattergram for these two variables. Also, report the correlation and plot the scattergram for the two variables that have the weakest correlation.
  • Determine whether the physiological parameters CCSA, HC, TOTSA, TOTVOL, and WEIGHT are significant predictors of IQ. That is, run a sequence of univariate regressions, with IQ as the dependent variable, and the physiological parameters as the independent variables. Report the best univariate regression with statistics and a graph of the regression. Describe whether IQ can be accurately predicted from any of these brain measures individually or in combination.

BONUS. Power law distributions, that is, functional relationships between two variables in which one variable is roughly a power of the other, are often used to model physiological data. One of the oldest power laws, the square-cube law, was introduced by Galileo in the 1600’s: empirically, the square-cube law states that as a shape grows in size, its volume grows faster than its surface area. We shall investigate the square-cube law with two variables from our dataset, CCSA and TOTVOL. If CCSA varies with some power of TOTVOL, for example, CCSA = k * (TOTVOL) ? (k is an unknown constant here), then a simple way of estimating the exponent ? is via linear regression: take log(CCSA) as the dependent variable and log(TOTVOL) as the independent variable; the fitted regression coefficient (slope) is an estimate of the exponent. (Do you see why this is true?) Perform this linear regression, and report your results. Describe whether the regression coefficient is significantly different from 2/3. (The 2/3rd power law occurs often in nature.)

Solution-Discuss the function of hiv protease and integrase

Discuss the function of HIV protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase.

Identify the characteristics of HIV which account for its transmission. Include the basic epidemiology of this virus and its method of transfer.

Discuss the normal function of B-lymphocytes, killer T-lymphocytes, helper T-lymphocytes, and macrophages in the immune system. Explain how HIV affects these components of a healthy immune system.

Explain the function of the complement system and do some research to investigate how the HIV virus turns the complement system against the human body. How has this lead to new treatments for this disease (Hint: Wiki or PubMed is a good place to begin your research)?

Denies history of cardiac or pulmonary disease

Cardiovascular, Cellular, and Hematologic Disorders – Case Study

Part One:


Tom is a 47 year old male who presents with gradual onset of dyspnea on exertion and fatigue. He also complains of frequent dyspepsia with nausea and occasional epigastric pain. So far you only know that he has a history of alcohol abuse.

Discussion question part one:

What questions would you like to ask this patient about his symptoms?

Part Two

  He says he has not had his usual energy levels for months; dyspnea has become much worse in the last few weeks which is why he came in. Tom denies chest pain, orthopnea, edema, cough, wheezing, or recent infections. He states he has occasional episodes of hematemesis after drinking heavily, and subsequently has had several days of dark stools. Tom consumes up to 2 six-packs of beer a day for the past 8 years since losing his job. Nothing seems to make his breathing any better, but antacids help with is epigastric discomfort and dyspepsia.


Denies history of cardiac or pulmonary disease

Diagnosed with duodenal ulcer in the past and was on “3 drugs at once” for a while 2 years ago, but stopped taking them due to the expense

His only surgical history was a childhood tonsillectomy

De does not smoke or take any medications except for over the counter antacids

He has no known allergies


Thin and pale white male looking older than his stated age with no acute distress

T = 37 C orally; P = 95 and regular; RR = 16 and unlabored; B/P = 128/72 sitting

Skin, HEENT, Neck:

Skin pale without rash, no spider angiomata

Sclera pale with no icterus

PERRLA, fundi without lesions

Pharynx is clear without postnasal drainage

NO thyromegaly, adenopathy, or bruits

Lungs, Cardiac:

Good lung expansion, lungs clear to auscultation and percussion

PMI at 5th intercostal space at midclavicular line

Heart rhythm regular with a grade II/VI systolic ejection murmur at left sternal border

No gallops, heaves, or thrills


Abdomen, Rectal:

Abdomen nondistended; bowel sounds present

Liver 8 cm. At midclavicular line

Moderate epigastric tenderness without rebound or guarding

Prostate not enlarged and nontender

Stool guaiac positive


Extremities, Neurological:

No joint deformity, muscle tenderness or edema

Alert and oriented X 3

Strength is 5/5 throughout and sensation intact

Gait normal.  DTR 2 + and symmetrical throughout


Discussion questions part two:

What are the pertinent positives and negatives on examination related to his presenting problem?


What is your differential diagnosis at this time?


What laboratory studies should be obtained at this time?


Part Three


WBC = normal with a normal differential and platelet count

Hct = 29%; MCV = normal, MCHC = slightly decreased; RDW = markedly increased; reticulocyte count < 2%

Smear with mixed microcytic/hypochromic and macrocytic/normochromic red blood cells; WBC and platelets appear normal

PT/PTT, liver function tests, electrolytes, and amylase normal

Upper endoscopy with 2 cm. duodenal ulcer with evidence of recent but no acute hemorrhage


Serum iron, total iron binding capacity, saturation, and ferritin all reduced

Bone marrow biopsy with megaloblastic changes and low iron stores

Ø  Serum folate and red blood cell folate low; B12 normal

Discussion questions part three:

Based on these findings, what are the diagnoses for this patient?

How should this patient be managed?


This needs to be in APA Format with 3-5 scholarly articles to back up each part (1, 2, 3). Also information in answer needs to be referenced with APA in text citations.